LEAN – 6 Sigma


Six Sigma DMAIC Roadmap

The Six Sigma DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) methodology can be thought of as a roadmap for problem solving and product/process improvement. Most companies begin implementing Six Sigma using the DMAIC methodology, and later add the DFSS (Design for Six Sigma, also known as DMADV or IDDOV) methodologies when the organizational culture and experience level permits. You can read the main differences between DMAIC and DMADV, but we’ll focus on the DMAIC in this article.

While the DMAIC methodology presented below may appear linear and explicitly defined, it should be noted that an iterative approach may be necessary – especially for Black Belts and Green Belts that are new to the tools and techniques that make up DMAIC. For instance, you may find that upon analyzing your data (Analyze phase) you did not gather enough data to isolate the root cause of the problem. At this point, you may iterate back to the Measure phase. In addition, prior knowledge of the tools and techniques is necessary in determining which tools are useful in each phase. Remember, the appropriate application of tools becomes more critical for effectiveness than correctness, and you don’t need to use all the tools all the time.

DMAIC Phase Steps Tools Used
D – Define Phase: Define the project goals and customer (internal and external) deliverables.
Define Customers and Requirements (CTQs)Develop Problem Statement, Goals and BenefitsIdentify Champion, Process Owner and TeamDefine ResourcesEvaluate Key Organizational SupportDevelop Project Plan and MilestonesDevelop High Level Process MapProject CharterProcess FlowchartSIPOC DiagramStakeholder AnalysisDMAIC Work Breakdown StructureCTQ DefinitionsVoice of the Customer Gathering
Define Tollgate Review
M – Measure Phase: Measure the process to determine current performance; quantify the problem.
Define Defect, Opportunity, Unit and MetricsDetailed Process Map of Appropriate AreasDevelop Data Collection PlanValidate the Measurement SystemCollect the DataBegin Developing Y=f(x) RelationshipDetermine Process Capability and Sigma BaselineProcess FlowchartData Collection Plan/Example BenchmarkingMeasurement System Analysis/Gage R&RVoice of the Customer GatheringProcess Sigma Calculation
Measure Tollgate Review
A – Analyze Phase: Analyze and determine the root cause(s) of the defects.
Define Performance ObjectivesIdentify Value/Non-Value Added Process StepsIdentify Sources of VariationDetermine Root Cause(s)Determine Vital Few x’s, Y=f(x) RelationshipHistogramPareto ChartTime Series/Run ChartScatter PlotRegression AnalysisCause and Effect/Fishbone Diagram5 WhysProcess Map Review and AnalysisStatistical AnalysisHypothesis Testing (Continuous and Discrete)Non-Normal Data Analysis
Analyze Tollgate Review
I – Improve Phase: Improve the process by eliminating defects.
Perform Design of ExperimentsDevelop Potential SolutionsDefine Operating Tolerances of Potential SystemAssess Failure Modes of Potential SolutionsValidate Potential Improvement by Pilot StudiesCorrect/Re-Evaluate Potential SolutionBrainstormingMistake ProofingDesign of ExperimentsPugh MatrixQFD/House of QualityFailure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)Simulation Software
Improve Tollgate Review
C – Control Phase: Control future process performance.
Define and Validate Monitoring and Control SystemDevelop Standards and ProceduresImplement Statistical Process ControlDetermine Process CapabilityDevelop Transfer Plan, Handoff to Process OwnerVerify Benefits, Cost Savings/Avoidance, Profit GrowthClose Project, Finalize DocumentationCommunicate to Business, CelebrateProcess Sigma CalculationControl Charts (Variable and Attribute)Cost Savings CalculationsControl Plan
Control Tollgate Review

As you can see, the power of the Six Sigma DMAIC methodology lies in the structure and the rigor. Of the hundreds of TQM tools that have been developed over the years, the most important ones (described above) are taught in detail by consultants to Black Belts and Master Black Belts.

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